This is what the finite form looks like in the present tense:
(The stem of a verb is the form of the verb you get when conjugating the verb it with ‘I’)
|stem|| ik loop (I walk)
loop jij? (do you walk?)
|stem + t|| jij/ u loopt (you walk)
hij/zij/het loopt (he/she/it walks)
wij lopen (we walk)
This is what the finite form looks like in the past tense:
singular and plural
|vowelchange in the stem:
ik/jij/hij/zij/ het liep, wij/jullie/zij liepen
(I/you/he/she/it walked, we/you/they walked)
|The entire stem changes:
ik/jij/hij/zij/het ging, wij/jullie/zij gingen
(I/you/he/she/it went, we/you/they went)
plural and singular
|stem + de(n)
ik/jij/hij/zij/het gooide, wij/jullie/zij gooiden
(I/you/he/she/it threw, we/you/they threw)
|stem + te(n)
ik/jij/hij/zij/het stopte, wij/jullie/zij stopten
(I/you/he/she/it stopped, we/you/they stopped)
When the stem ends with one of the following consonants: k, f, s, c, h, p, the past tense is created stem + te(n). In all other cases it’s stem+ de(n). You can remember the consonants by remembering the word kofschip or fokschaap.
With weak verbs such as verven (to paint) and verbazen (to amaze) the de v and z at the end of the stem change into an f or an s: ik verf , ik verbaas.
The past tenses of these verbs, however, are created with stem+de(n) (ik verfde, ik verbaasde), because there’s a z and an n in their infinitives .
|Past participles end in –en: gelopen (walked), verdronken (drowned), gesneden (cut). They never change, not even when used as an adject: De geslagen man, (the hit man) het verdronken paard (the drowned horse)
Exceptions to this rules are participles ending in –n. When using these participles, write them as short as possible: (vergaan – vergane, gezien – geziene)
|– Ending in –d or -t : gered (saved), gewit (whitened)
When you use such words, place an e at the end of them
You then write them:
– the way you hear them: het geredde paard (the saved horse), het gewitte plafond (the whitened ceiling)
– as short as possible: de gehate dictator (the hated dictator)
|A present participle is a verbal that is used as an adjective and in Dutch always ends in –d(e)
Examles: zwaaiend(e), lachend(e), fietsend(e), etc. – waving, laughing, biking
|When conjugating a verb, we start with its infinitve form. The infinitve form of a verb is the form you can find in a dictionary. The infinive almost always ends with –en: lopen (to walk), werken (to work), leren (to learn) etc.
Exceptions are: staan (to stand), slaan (to hit), gaan (to go) etc.
|English verbs should be conjugated as weak Dutch verbs. That means their past tense is created either stem+te(n) or stem+de(n), depending on whether or not their stem ends in one of the letters of the word ‘kofschip’
Examples with de(n):
rugbyde, jogde, tackelde
Examples with te(n):
faxte, raceteNote: Dutch stems originally never ended in –x. The stems of English verbs ending in –x, should be conjugated stem+te(n), even though the x is not a letter of the word kofschip.